Back to History for Kids Ancient Rome was a powerful and important civilization that ruled much of Europe for nearly years. The culture of Ancient Rome was spread throughout Europe during its rule. The basis for much of Western culture comes from Ancient Rome, especially in areas such as government, engineering, architecture, language, and literature.
Carthage was a rich, flourishing Phoenician city-state that intended to dominate the Mediterranean area. After the Carthaginian intercession, Messana asked Rome to expel the Carthaginians.
Rome entered this war because Syracuse and Messana were too close to the newly conquered Greek cities of Southern Italy and Carthage was now able to make an offensive through Roman territory; along with this, Rome could extend its domain over Sicily.
Carthage was a maritime power, and the Roman lack of ships and naval experience would make the path to the victory a long and difficult Development of ancient rome for the Roman Republic.
Despite this, after more than 20 years of war, Rome defeated Carthage and a peace treaty was signed. Among the reasons for the Second Punic War  was the subsequent war reparations Carthage acquiesced to at the end of the First Punic War.
Rome fought this war simultaneously with the First Macedonian War.
The war began with the audacious invasion of Hispania by Hannibal, the Carthaginian general who had led operations on Sicily in the First Punic War. At great cost, Rome had made significant gains: More than a half century after these events, Carthage was humiliated and Rome was no more concerned about the African menace.
However, Carthage, after having paid the war indemnity, felt that its commitments and submission to Rome had ceased, a vision not shared by the Roman Senate.
Ambassadors were sent to Carthage, among them was Marcus Porcius Catowho after seeing that Carthage could make a comeback and regain its importance, ended all his speeches, no matter what the subject was, by saying: Carthage resisted well at the first strike, with the participation of all the inhabitants of the city.
However, Carthage could not withstand the attack of Scipio Aemilianuswho entirely destroyed the city and its walls, enslaved and sold all the citizens and gained control of that region, which became the province of Africa. Thus ended the Punic War period.
At this time Rome was a consolidated empire — in the military view — and had no major enemies. Gaius Mariusa Roman general and politician who dramatically reformed the Roman military Foreign dominance led to internal strife.
Violent gangs of the urban unemployed, controlled by rival Senators, intimidated the electorate through violence. The situation came to a head in the late 2nd century BC under the Gracchi brothers, a pair of tribunes who attempted to pass land reform legislation that would redistribute the major patrician landholdings among the plebeians.
Marius then started his military reform: At this time, Marius began his quarrel with Lucius Cornelius Sulla: Marius, who wanted to capture Jugurtha, asked Bocchusson-in-law of Jugurtha, to hand him over.
As Marius failed, Sulla, a general of Marius at that time, in a dangerous enterprise, went himself to Bocchus and convinced Bocchus to hand Jugurtha over to him.
This was very provocative to Marius, since many of his enemies were encouraging Sulla to oppose Marius. The reformist Marcus Livius Drusus supported their legal process but was assassinated, and the socii revolted against the Romans in the Social War.
At one point both consuls were killed; Marius was appointed to command the army together with Lucius Julius Caesar and Sulla. To consolidate his own power, Sulla conducted a surprising and illegal action: He seized power along with the consul Lucius Cornelius Cinna and killed the other consul, Gnaeus Octaviusachieving his seventh consulship.
Sulla after returning from his Eastern campaigns, had a free path to reestablish his own power.
Sulla also held two dictatorships and one more consulship, which began the crisis and decline of Roman Republic. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Political divisions in Rome became identified with two groupings, populares who hoped for the support of the people and optimates the "best", who wanted to maintain exclusive aristocratic control.
Sulla overthrew all populist leaders and his constitutional reforms removed powers such as those of the tribune of the plebs that had supported populist approaches.
Meanwhile, social and economic stresses continued to build; Rome had become a metropolis with a super-rich aristocracy, debt-ridden aspirants, and a large proletariat often of impoverished farmers.
The latter groups supported the Catilinarian conspiracy — a resounding failure, since the consul Marcus Tullius Cicero quickly arrested and executed the main leaders of the conspiracy.
Onto this turbulent scene emerged Gaius Julius Caesarfrom an aristocratic family of limited wealth. To achieve power, Caesar reconciled the two most powerful men in Rome:Jan 12, · Ancient Rome: Geographical Setting.
Rome is a city and the capital of both Italy and the region of Lazio, and the province of Rome, located on the Tiber River, in the central part of the country, near the Tyrrhenian Sea.5/5(10).
Temporary Setback to the Growth of Rome The Sack of the Gauls. In the 4th century B.C., Italy was invaded by the Gauls. Although Rome survived, thanks in part to the noisily famous Capitoline geese, the Romans' defeat at the Battle of the Allia remained a sore spot throughout Rome's history.
Roman law, the law of ancient Rome from the time of the founding of the city in bce until the fall of the Western Empire in the 5th century ce.
It remained in use in the Eastern, or Byzantine, Empire until As a legal system, Roman law has affected the development of law in most of Western. Roman Republic, the ancient state that centred on the city of Rome, from the time of the events leading up to the founding of the republic in bce, through the establishment of the Roman Empire in 27 bce.
Map Showing the Expansion of Ancient Rome Click on the underlined for a link to a map you can enlarge. From "The Historical Atlas," by William R. Shepherd, At first, Rome was just one, small city-state in an area of Latin-speaking people (called Latium), on the west side of Italy's peninsula.
The ancient city of Rome dominated most of Europe, Africa and the Middle East for centuries. Although it is tempting to ascribe Rome's success to its military power or economic might, the geography of the city created the conditions that enabled trade and military expansion.