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ABSTRACT Argentina annually utilizestones of glyphosate in industrial agriculture and a change in the profile of morbidity is perceived for physicians of agricultural areas; now reproductive disorders seem to prevail.
An ecological study was developed with an environmental analysis of pollution sources including measurements of glyphosate and other pesticides and a cross-sectional study of spontaneous abortions and congenital abnormalities prevalence.
Glyphosate was detected in soil and grain dust and was found to be at an even higher concentration in the village soil than in the rural area; tonnes of glyphosate are used annually in the region and manipulated inner town contaminating the soil and dust in suspension of the town creating an burden of environmental exposure to glyphosate of 79 kg per person per year.
We do not find other relevant sources of pollution. Our study verified high environmental exposure to glyphosate in association with increased frequencies of reproductive disorders spontaneous abortion and Environmental analysis argentina abnormalities in argentine agricultural village, but is unable to make assertions cause-effect.
Further studies are required with designs for such purposes. Introduction InArgentina began to grow genetically modified GM seeds, and used currently 25 million hectares where 12 million people live; these crops have generated a substantial increase in the pesticide consumption.
InArgentina sprayedtons of Glyphosate  . A change in the profile of morbidity and mortality is perceived for physicians of agricultural areas; now reproductive disorders and cancer seem to prevail  and recently the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics expressed concern about reproductive health impacts of exposure to toxic environmental chemical .
In recent years, local governmental authorities along with local residents and doctors were worried about an increase apparent in the number of spontaneous abortions, congenital abnormalities and cancer, thus requesting an assessment of health status to the Faculty of Medical Sciences, National University of Cordoba UNC.
The community had conducted a health census in unpublishedcarried out by teachers and other volunteers, in which high rates of spontaneous abortions and cancer were identified. There are few epidemiological studies on the environmental health of rural populations in Argentina and very little has been published to date.
It was our goal to verify concurrence of glyphosate environmental exposure and those reproductive disorders; cancer rates were also measured and this outcome has already been recently published by the authors . Material and Methods An exploratory ecological study on reproductive disorders and environmental pollution was performed, consisting on the one hand of an epidemiological study a cross-sectional study with a household survey of health addressed to the entire population population surveydesigned to geo-reference each record in the village with use of nine ratios census R by National Institute Census that divide the town into nine sectors outweighed demographically as seen in the map of Figure 1.
Through the household survey, we checked spontaneous abortions prevalence women aged between 15 and 45 years old who have suffered Figure 1. On the other hand, an environmental analysis recording sources of contamination such as landfills, cell site cell towerelectric power transformers, industrial sites, stockpiles of grains, storehouses of pesticides, and spraying machines.
We interviewed community and government stakeholders, business owners, city officials, teachers, farmers and workers that sprayed pesticides, in order to recognize the performance of industries, local public services, and agribusiness drinking water, sewer management, household waste, industries pollutions, routines and doses of pesticides use.
Samples of environmental matrices water, soil, grain husks were collected and analyzed by the Center for Environmental Research, Faculty of Exact Sciences of National University of La Plata, which selected twelve internal and peripheral sites in the town to examine the presence of glyphosate, its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid AMPAand currently used pesticides chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, cipermetrina, atrazine, 2.
Both pretreatment and analysis of pesticides were performed under international regulations using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry  . A dosage of arsenic As was conducted in domestic water network using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Agriculture is the main economic activity with complementary metalworking industry that is located on the Southern edge of the town .
Statistical Analysis Crude rates were obtained through a database and numerical matrix, a bivariate correlation Pearson analysis was conducted to assess the association of spontaneous abortions and congenital abnormalities with independent variables, included the spatial distribution according to ratios census in which the town was divided RR We built maps for spontaneous abortions and congenital abnormalities and pollution sources using Quantum GIS 2.
For this end, the following software was used: Study Conduct Physicians or medical students carried out the fieldwork during October ; all health surveys were conducted by final year medicine students of UNC and medical professors.
The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and under the framework of Act Article 2 of the Province of Cordoba in accordance with the law regulating health research and was approved by the Bioethics Committee established by this law for observational studies .
All surveys were performed after obtaining informed consent. Has a sewer system with a domestic collection network reaching every home; solid urban waste is collected by a municipal service that has a Solid Waste plant. Their hinterland has soybeans on 45, ha and maize on 20, ha which are main summer crops and wheat on 15, ha as a winter crop.
There is an absence of forestry across the periphery of the town, which is replaced by soybean and maize crops, starting at the immediate edge of houses. These crops are frequently treated, with pesticide, by ground equipment and crop dusters.
There are two farm equipment industries, located at the southern tip of the town; these factories use methane gas as a source of energy.Pest Analysis.
PEST and PESTLE analysis is a framework used in the environmental scanningcomponent of strategic management. Under PEST and PESTLE analysis are externalfactors which are the major players in the success and failure of an organization. Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a federal republic located in southeastern South caninariojana.comng most of the Southern Cone, it is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, .
The report is based in the diverse challenges faced by the environment and natural resource sector in Argentina, especially those relating to new challenges in the rural economy, but also by urbanization and industrial development.
Argentina - Temporary Entry of Materials and Personal Belongings Argentina - Political Environment Argentina - Political Environment Links to the State Department’s website for background on the country’s political environment.
Country Analysis Report: Argentina, In-depth PESTLE Insights Summary This PESTLE country analysis report on Argentina provides a holistic view of the country, with insightful analysis of current and future issues, supplemented with relevant quantitative data to support trend analysis. Argentina is one of the largest economies in South America.
In recent years, the government has focused in promoting economic development along with social inclusion with the support of the World Bank.