Chills Fatigue Like seasonal flu, swine flu can lead to more serious complications, including pneumonia and respiratory failure. And it can make conditions like diabetes or asthma worse. If you have symptoms like shortness of breath, severe vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness, or confusion, call your doctor or right away.
How does the new H1N1 swine virus infect humans compared to the common influenza virus? In the 20th century, there are 3 influenza viruses which caused major pandemics: All three aforementioned pandemics were caused by viruses containing human adapted PB2 genes.
During the first few weeks of strain surveillance, the virus spread worldwide to many countries by human-to-human transmission and perhaps due to the airline travel. On June 11 ofthis led the World Health Organization WHO to raise its pandemic alert to level 5 Human-to-human spread of the virus into at least 2 countries in 1 WHO region of 6 Human-to-human spread of the virus into at least 1 other country in a different WHO region in addition to phase 5 criteria.
According to the sayings of Smith et al. In the early summer ofthe causes of the human infection and influenza spread among humans had still remained unknown although many publications of that period tried to elucidate this influenza outburst.
How the Flu Virus Can Change: “Drift” and “Shift” Such a “shift” occurred in the spring of , when an H1N1 virus with a new combination of genes emerged to infect people and quickly spread, causing a pandemic. When shift happens, most people have little or no protection against the new virus. Seasonal Vaccine. Due to the mercerial nature of the virus a need is created to predict which strains will circulate in the next flu season. This need is filled by the World Health Organization (WHO), which monitors viral changes globally. H1N1 Influenza (“Swine Flu”) is a flu pandemic that has recently spread all around the world. The Swine Flu began its massive spread through Mexico in April () and by June, the World Health Organization raised the alert level to .
For example, according to the sayings of Palese, the new H1N1 could also die out entirely. Today the H1N1 virus has ultimately created the first influenza pandemic, has disproportionately affected the younger populations which perhaps reflects the protection in the elderly due to their exposure to H1N1 strains beforebut turned out to be not highly pathogenic because the majority of cases of influenza A H1N1 are mild.
Genomic analysis of the influenza A H1N1 virus in humans indicates that it is closely related to common reassortant swine influenza A viruses isolated in North America, Europe, and Asia.
Therefore, it contains a combination of swine, avian, and human influenza virus genes.
More studies need be conducted to identify the unrecognized molecular markers for the ability of S-OIV A H1N1 to replicate and be transmitted in humans. As a result these additional studies would help us to determine the mechanism by which an animal influenza A virus crossed the species barrier to infect humans.
Additionally, these molecular determinants can be used to predict viral virulence and pathogenicity for diagnosis. Thus, the strains of virus that cause the annual seasonal flu are different than the new swine flu viruses that emerged in the spring of Consequently, as it will be analyzed in the subsequent chapters, the new swine flu virus has a unique combination of gene segments from many different sources a combination that has not been previously reported among swine or human influenza viruses and specifically is thought to be a mutation of four known strains of the influenza A virus, subtype H1N1: According to Yoon and Jankethe constant evolution of influenza A viruses through mutation and reassortment present a complex and dynamic picture which is to be unfolded in the remaining Literature Review section more specifically for the H1N1 virus.
Influenza Influenza is historically an ancient disease of global dimension that causes annual epidemics and, at irregular intervals, pandemics. When compared with the majority of other viral respiratory infections such as the common coldthe infection by influenza often causes a more severe illness Smith, Influenza is transmitted by inhalation of microdroplets because the transmission via large-particle droplets requires close contact which is attributed to the fact that these large-particle droplets cannot remain suspended in the air for a long period of time of respiratory secretions, often expelled by coughing or sneezing, that contain the virus or from other bodily fluids such as fomites, diarrheal stool etc.
The incubation period is between 1 to 5 days. Symptoms typically include fever, headache, malaise, myalgia, cough, nasal discharge, and sore throat. In severe cases of influenza, a secondary bacterial pneumonia can lead to the death of a patient Suguitan and Subbarao, Vaccination and antiviral treatment constitute the two major options for controlling influenza and are the most effective means of preventing influenza virus infection and further transmission in humans.
Pandemic Influenza An influenza pandemic is a large-scale global outbreak of the disease, whereas an epidemic is considered more sporadic and localized. Several influenza subtypes have infected humans. Historical accounts led us to consider that an average of three influenza pandemics have occurred each century, at intervals ranging from 10 to 50 years Garcia-Sastre, The three influenza pandemics which occurred in the previous 20th century are: These pandemics resulted in high morbidity, death, and also considerable social and economic disruption.
They provide health authorities information on which to base preparations for a future pandemic. Although influenza B viruses do not cause pandemics, during some epidemic years they have caused more significant mortality and morbidity than influenza A viruses FLUAV [Garcia-Sastre, ].
Influenza Virus It was already mentioned that influenza viruses are divided into three types designated A, B, and C according to the antigenic differences of their internal structural components as it is discussed below in the current chapter.
Influenza types A and B are responsible for epidemics of respiratory illness that occur almost every winter and are often associated with increased rates for hospitalization and death. As it was mentioned in the previous chapter, influenza A virus has also the capability of developing into pandemic virus.
Type C infection usually causes either a sporadic mild or asymptomatic respiratory illness or no symptoms at all Smith, Anyone can get the flu but you can avoid getting it by taking the flu vaccine..
After years of trying to discover a vaccine for the flu, there is still no fully effective general flu vaccine. A vaccine that could prevent influenza from occurring and/or lessen the severity of symptoms would be invaluable. Essays Related to Flu Vaccine. 1. How does the new H1N1 swine virus infect humans compared to the common influenza virus?
SUMMARY Pandemic influenza viruses cause significan. The Prison Policy Initiative works hard to organize all of the research about the criminal justice system so that you can find it and use it in your work. Free argumentative essay on why kids should get vaccines papers, essays, and research papers.
How does the new H1N1 swine virus infect humans compared to the common influenza virus? SUMMARY. Pandemic influenza viruses cause significant mortality in humans.
Essay On H1n1 Vaccine. saw an epidemic called Swine flu that affected hundreds of thousands of people around the globe. With such reach and WHO tagging the flu as a dangerous epidemic, Swine flu vaccine instantly has become a term of concern and curiosity among the general mass and the medical practitioners; students are not the exception with many choosing some aspects of h1n1 .