EliteAristocracyOligarchyand Ruling class A symbolic image of three orders of feudal society in Europe prior to the French Revolutionwhich shows the rural third estate carrying the clergy and the nobility The upper class  is the social class composed of those who are richwell-born, powerful, or a combination of those. They usually wield the greatest political power.
Types[ edit ] Social influence is a broad term that relates to many different phenomena. Listed below are some major types of social influence that are being researched in the field of social psychology.
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Compliance psychology Compliance is the act of responding favorably to an explicit or implicit request offered by others. Technically, compliance is a change in behavior but not necessarily in attitude; one How social class can influence the comply due to mere obedience or by otherwise opting to withhold private thoughts due to social pressures.
Identification psychology Identification is the changing of attitudes or behaviors due to the influence of someone who is admired. Advertisements that rely upon celebrity endorsements to market their products are taking advantage of this phenomenon.
According to Kelman, the desired relationship that the identifier relates to the behavior or attitude change. Internalization Internalization is the process of acceptance of a set of norms established by people or groups that are influential to the individual.
The individual accepts the influence because the content of the influence accepted is intrinsically rewarding. Conformity Conformity is a type of social influence involving a change in behavior, belief, or thinking to align with those of others or with normative standards. It is the most common and pervasive form of social influence.
Social psychology research in conformity tends to distinguish between two varieties: Conformity from peer pressure generally results from identification with the group members or from compliance of some members to appease others.
Conformity can be in appearance, or may be more complete in nature; impacting an individual both publicly and privately. Compliance also referred to as acquiescence demonstrates a public conformity to a group majority or norm, while the individual continues to privately disagree or dissent, holding on to their original beliefs or to an alternative set of beliefs differing from the majority.
Compliance appears as conformity, but there is a division between the public and the private self. Conversion includes the private acceptance that is absent in compliance.
The individual has accepted the behavior, belief, or thinking, and has internalized it, making it his own. Conversion may also refer to individual members of a group changing from their initial and varied opinions to adopt the opinions of others, which may differ from their original opinions.
The resulting group position may be a hybrid of various aspects of individual initial opinions, or it may be an alternative independent of the initial positions reached through consensus. What appears to be conformity may in fact be congruence.
In situations where conformity including compliance, conversion, and congruence is absent, there are non-conformity processes such as independence and anti-conformity. Independence, also referred to as dissent, involves an individual either through their actions or lack of action, or through the public expression of their beliefs or thinking being aligned with their personal standards but inconsistent with those of other members of the group either all of the group or a majority.
Anti-conformity, also referred to as counter-conformity, may appear as independence, but it lacks alignment with personal standards and is for the purpose of challenging the group.
Actions as well as stated opinions and beliefs are often diametrically opposed to that of the group norm or majority.
Minority influence Minority influence takes place when a majority is influenced to accept the beliefs or behaviors of a minority.
Minority influence can be affected by the sizes of majority and minority groups, the level of consistency of the minority group, and situational factors such as the affluence or social importance of the minority.
Self-fulfilling prophecy A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true due to positive feedback between belief and behavior. A prophecy declared as truth when it is actually false may sufficiently influence people, either through fear or logical confusion, so that their reactions ultimately fulfill the once-false prophecy.
This term is credited to sociologist Robert K. Merton from an article he published in Reactance psychology Reactance is the adoption of a view contrary to the view that a person is being pressured to accept, perhaps due to a perceived threat to behavioral freedoms.
This phenomenon has also been called anticonformity. While the results are the opposite of what the influencer intended, the reactive behavior is a result of social pressure. In many studies, reactance manifests itself in a deliberate rejection of an influence, even if the influence is clearly correct.
Obedience human behavior Obedience is a form of social influence that derives from an authority figure. Persuasion Persuasion is the process of guiding oneself or another toward the adoption of an attitude by rational or symbolic means.
Robert Cialdini defined six "weapons of influence": These "weapons of influence" attempt to bring about conformity by directed means.A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
"Class" is a subject of analysis for sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists and social historians.
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Empirical studies find that perceptions of social-class rank influence patterns of contextual versus dispositional cognition and other- versus self-oriented affect and behavior that are consistent with objective resource-based measures of social class. Social class is the position or ranking of people in society based on social stratification variables like income, occupation, type of residence, education and qualification that affect purchase pattern and buying behaviour.
Social Knowledge Social Sciences is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
It in turn has many branches, each of which is considered a "social science". The main social sciences include economics, political science, human geography, demography, and sociology. Class: Power, Privilege, and Influence in the United States Perhaps the most elusive of all the social ills confronting us today is the issue of class.
It can evade any attempt at categorization or simplistic definition.