Early life of Rabindranath Tagore The youngest of thirteen surviving children, Tagore nicknamed "Rabi" was born on 7 May in the Jorasanko mansion in Calcutta to Debendranath Tagore — and Sarada Devi — They hosted the publication of literary magazines; theatre and recitals of Bengali and Western classical music featured there regularly. Another brother, Satyendranathwas the first Indian appointed to the elite and formerly all-European Indian Civil Service. Yet another brother, Jyotirindranathwas a musician, composer, and playwright.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Modern literature Even after the arrival of Commodore Matthew C. Navy fleet in and the gradual opening of the country to the West and its influence, there was at first little noticeable effect on Japanese literature.
The long closure of the country and the general sameness of Tokugawa society for decades at a time seemed to have atrophied the imaginations of the gesaku writers.
Even the presence of curiously garbed foreigners, which should have provoked some sort of reaction from authors searching for new material, initially produced little effect.
The gesaku writers were oblivious to the changes in Japanese society, and they continued to grind out minor variants on the same hackneyed themes of the preceding years.
It was only after the removal in of the capital to Edo renamed Tokyo and the declaration by the emperor Meiji that he would seek knowledge from the entire world that the gesaku writers realized their days of influence were numbered.
They soon fell under attack from their old enemies, the Confucian denouncers of immoral books, and also from advocates of the new Western learning.
Although the gesaku writers responded with satirical pieces and traditional Japanese fiction deriding the new learning, they were helpless to resist the changes transforming the entire society. Introduction of Western literature Translations from European languages of nonliterary works began to appear soon after the Meiji Restoration.
The early translations were inaccurate, and the translators unceremoniously deleted any passages that they could not understand readily or that they feared might be unintelligible to Japanese readers.
They also felt obliged to reassure readers that, despite the foreign names of the characters, the emotions they felt were exactly the same as those of a Japanese. It did not take long, however, for the translators to discover that European literature possessed qualities never found in the Japanese writings of the past.
This was due, no doubt, to their reluctance to give up the rich heritage of traditional expression in favour of the unadorned modern tongue. Western influences on poetry Translations of Western poetry led to the creation of new Japanese literary forms. The translators declared that although European poetry had greater variety than Japanese poetry —some poems are rhymed, others unrhymed, some are extremely long, others abrupt—it was invariably written in the language of ordinary speech.
An insistence on modern language and the availability of many different poetic forms were not the only lessons offered by European poetry. The translators also made the Japanese public aware of how much of human experience had never been treated in the tanka or haiku forms. Innumerable Western critics have sarcastically commented on the Japanese proclivity for imitating foreign literary models and on their alleged indifference to their own traditions.
But far from recklessly abandoning their literary heritage, most writers were at great pains to acquaint themselves with their traditional literature.
National Diet Library In poetry, too, the first products of Western influence were comically inept experiments with rhyme and with such unpromising subjects as the principles of sociology. A decade after the works of English Romantic poets such as Shelley and William Wordsworth had influenced Japanese poetry, the translations made by Ueda Bin of the French Parnassian and Symbolist poets made an even more powerful impression.
If the Japanese poets of the early s had been urged to avoid contamination by foreign ideas, they would have declared that this was contrary to the spirit of an enlightened age. But when informed that eminent foreign poets preferred ambiguity to clarity, the Japanese responded with double enthusiasm.
Revitalization of the tanka and haiku Even the traditional forms, tanka and haikuthough moribund intook on new life, thanks largely to the efforts of Masaoka Shikia distinguished late 19th-century poet in both forms but of even greater importance as a critic.
Takuboku emerged in the course of his short life he died in at age 26 as perhaps the most popular tanka poet of all time. His verses are filled with strikingly individual expressions of his intransigent personality.
Despite the austere nature of his poetry, he was recognized for many years as the leading tanka poet. In haiku, Takahama Kyoshi built up a following of poets strong enough to withstand the attacks of critics who declared that the form was inadequate to deal with the problems of modern life. Kyoshi himself eventually decided that the function of haiku was the traditional one of an intuitive apprehension of the beauties of nature, but other haiku poets employed the medium to express entirely unconventional themes.
Most tanka and haiku poets continued to use the classical language, probably because its relative concision permitted them to impart greater content to their verses than modern Japanese permits. Other poets, such as Horiguchi Daigaku, devoted themselves to translations of European poetry, achieving results so compelling in Japanese that these translations are considered to form an important part of the modern poetry of Japan.
Midway in his career he shifted to historical novels that are virtually devoid of fictional elements but are given literary distinction by their concise style.
Botchana fictionalized account of his experiences as a teacher in a provincial town. Botchan enjoyed phenomenal popularity after it first appeared.
Kokororevolves around another familiar situation in his novels, two men in love with the same woman. His last novel, Meian ; Light and Darknessthough unfinished, has been acclaimed by some as his masterpiece. An amazing burst of creative activity occurred in the decade following the end of the Russo-Japanese War in Probably never before in the history of Japanese literature were so many important writers working at once.
In later years, however, though still alienated from the Japanese present, he showed nostalgia for the Japan of his youth, and his most appealing works contain evocations of the traces of an old and genuine Japan that survived in the parody of Western culture that was Tokyo.
In his early works he also proclaimed a preference for the West. Between and Tanizaki published the first of his three modern-language versions of Genji monogatari. He willingly sacrificed years of his career to this task because of his unbounded admiration for the supreme work of Japanese literature.
|Japanese literature - Modern literature | caninariojana.com||Numerous deaths in his family left Kawabata virtually alone at a young age and impressed upon him the loneliness and impermanence of life, a view often reflected in his work. He was respected not only as an author but as a patron of younger Japanese writers such as Yukio Mishima.|
|Rabindranath Tagore - Wikipedia||Writing as Tea Ceremony:|
|Yasunari Kawabata : Wikis (The Full Wiki)||The night had turned white.|
|Yasunari Kawabata Kawabata, Yasunari (Vol. 9) - Essay - caninariojana.com||In his words I find songs of a wintry heart waiting for a prosperous spring.|
No reader would turn to Tanizaki for wisdom as to how to lead his life, nor for a penetrating analysis of society, but his works not only provide the pleasures of well-told stories but also convey the special phenomenon of adulation and rejection of the West that played so prominent a part in the Japanese culture of the 20th century.
Akutagawa established his reputation as a brilliant storyteller who transformed materials found in old Japanese collections by infusing them with modern psychology.- Choice in One Hundred Years of Solitude and Thousand Cranes The issue of choice arises when comparing Gabriel Marquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude and Yasunari Kawabata's Thousand Cranes.
The men in each novel forever seem to be repeating the lives of their male ancestors. Yasunari Kawabata (川端 康成, Artistic career. that to see my novel Thousand Cranes as an evocation of the formal and spiritual beauty of the tea ceremony is a misreading.
It is a negative work, and expression of doubt about and warning against the vulgarity into which the tea ceremony has fallen. Speaking of his novel A Thousand Cranes (), Kawabata declared it "a negative work, an expression of doubt about and a warning against the vulgarity into which the tea ceremony has fallen" (JBM 68).
In this context "tea ceremony" may be seen as a metaphor for Japanese culture.
Japanese literature - Modern literature: Even after the arrival of Commodore Matthew C. Perry’s U.S. Navy fleet in and the gradual opening of the country to the West and its influence, there was at first little noticeable effect on Japanese literature.
A Thousand Cranes is a novella by Japanese Nobel Prize winner Yasunari Kawabata. Unfortunately the book was not my taste, but I did glean much from this short book that many consider a gem. The book follows Kikuji Mitani as he copes with the deaths of his parents/5.
“Thousand Cranes” by Yasunari Kawabata ILLUSTRATE THE ROLE WHICH MRS OTA AND HER DAUGHTER FUMIKO PLAY IN BRINGING ABOUT THE REFORMATION OF KIKUJI’S CHARACTER TO COME TO TERMS WITH HIS PAST.
IN WHAT WAYS (IF ANY) DOES THIS HELP HIM BECOME A BETTER PERSON? Kawabata’s “Thousand Cranes” is a no.